I previously believed that Bruce Banner was involved in trying to replicate the super-soldier serum that made Steve Rogers, his gamma ray experiments were trying to replicate that.
I also believe Man-Thing and Curtis Conners were also involved in research linked to the super serum, and their transformations came linked to that work.
How many and which Super Heroes' and Villains' from the comics, original storylines were linked to researching the Super Serum in some way, and how many (roughly) have had their original Origin Stories retconned to be linked to the Serum since? (I will ask a follow up question later based on this answer)
Just to clarify it is fairly easy to find the list of characters who have been given the super soldier serum. This question is not about them, it is about the characters who where created either as a side effect of trying to develop it, or in some other way had there origin linked to it.