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Elrond invites members of each of the free races of Middle Earth to his council. Why is only one kingdom of each of the free races invited to join?

For instance, Gondor represents Men (although there is Rohan as well), the Elves of Mirkwood represent all of the Elves (although there are other Elven kingdoms like Lórien and the Grey Havens) and the Dwarves of Erebor (although there are other Dwarves such as those in the Iron Hills).

Why were the others not invited?

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Elrond doesn't invite anyone at all. Gimli and Glóin had arrived a few days before wanting to know what to do about the persistent visitor from Mordor, and Boromir arrived completely unexpectedly that morning just in time for the Council. (Providence, ie God/the powers arranging things so that people are in the right place at the right time, is a key theme in Tolkien.)

Plus, of course, Men were represented by Aragorn as well as Boromir, and the Elves were represented by Glofindel and Elrond himself as well as Legolas.

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    Not strictly true -- Elrond did invite people to a council, chosen from among those who happened to be in Rivendell at the time as you state. Merry and Pippin were not invited, which certainly implies that those who were present were indeed invited to attend. – Mike Scott Nov 24 '12 at 16:18
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    I agree that the nine came together more as fate than Elrond's design. Without Faramir's dream and Denethor's intervention, Boromir wouldn't have been there at all. – Canadian Girl Scout Nov 24 '12 at 18:11
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    I just wanted to add this quote from Elrond which agrees with you: 'That is the purpose for which you are called hither. Called, I say though I have not called you to me, strangers from distant lands. You have come and are here met, in this very nick of time, by chance as it may seem. Yet it is not so. Believe rather that it is so ordered that we, who sit here, and none others, must now find counsel for the peril of the world.' – tugs Nov 26 '12 at 18:19
  • "... with him was Galdor, an Elf from the Grey Havens who had come on an errand from Círdan the Shipwright" - the Havens were also represented. – user8719 Aug 7 '14 at 20:45

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