This question has several parts, so it may need to be split into a few questions. I know that Cyclops visor aperture is made of a mixture of powdered ruby-quartz. Has he ever tried using a different material for the visor, and if so did (or would) that change the color and EM wavelength of his optic blasts?
Cyclop's optic blast is not electromagnetic energy so its signature color has never changed. Nothing is known about the dimension from which the red kinetic energy is released. It is the same color even when he does not wear his visor.
Ruby quartz crystals resonate at the same frequency as the psionic field that protects both Cyclops and Havok from their own powers.
The beam is a kinetic energy coming from an other-dimensional aperture focused over his eyes. A traumatic brain injury prevents him from controlling the aperture so he needs the visor to compensate.
As to whether other materials are more or less effective, I suspect Professor X tried many things before settling down with the ruby quartz he uses today. Unfortunately for Cyclops, ruby quartz is rather rare, so it is fortunate he does not need much. On Marvel Earth-616 there is sufficient supply for it to be used in a variety of technologies used by agencies such as SHIELD.
While ruby quartz was selected, there is little reason another variety of quartz could not function in a similar fashion since the difference in coloration is merely the addition of trace elements within the quartz crystals.