It is hard to rule out completely that something similar might have previously appeared in another Star Wars expanded universe work. However, there does not seem to be any indication of such a ceremony in the core canonical media released before the Clone Wars cartoons. To the contrary, from what can be seen in the films prior to Star Wars: Clone Wars, Lucas's conception appears to have been that there was no official ceremony at all.
In Return of the Jedi, Yoda tells Luke Skywalker what Luke needs to do to be a true Jedi. However, the determination of when he has met the imposed condition is left entirely to Luke's judgement. Once Luke has defeated Darth Vader without succumbing to the Emperor's temptations, Luke knows—probably feeling it through the Force—that he has done what is required. He declares
You've failed, your highness. I am a Jedi, like my father before me.
and all three of the Force users present knows that he is speaking the truth. The Emperor mocks him, but he never questions that Luke has become a full-fledged Jedi—a happening that the Emperor and Yoda have (correctly) foreseen will (probably*) lead directly to the Emperor's final downfall. Conversely, Luke, although he is not expecting to survive, believes that his victory over Vader means that the attack on the Death Star is going to succeed; Yoda's prediction will come true, and Luke the Jedi has ensured the success of the Rebel attack by keeping Vader and the Emperor from participating in the Imperial defense.
It might be argued that, since there are no living Jedi Knights to confirm Luke's promotion, things had to work this way. However, what happens at the The Phantom Menace seems to be in agreement with Return of the Jedi's minimalist, unceremonious approach. Yoda's (announcement of the) promotion of Obi-Wan Kenobi lasts less than one sentence; by the second clause, he is already on to another topic (one which presupposes that Obi-Wan is a full Jedi):
Confer on you the level of Jedi Knight, the Council does. But agree with your taking this boy as your Padawan learner, I do not!
What's more, the standard battery of trials that Jedi must take to prove themselves, has been entirely skipped in Obi-Wan's case. Obi-Wan has already demonstrated he is ready by defeating Sith in combat, so there is no reason to go through the usual testing rigmarole. The message seems to be that the Jedi Knights are about getting things done, not imposing mystical rituals. A true Jedi needs no ceremonial confirmation of their status; that can come from the Force itself.
*"Always in motion is the future."