Besides the Basilisk, what kind of Dark Magic can cause someone to be Petrified?
‘She has been Petrified,’ said Dumbledore (‘Ah! I thought so!’ said Lockhart). ‘But how, I cannot say ...’
‘Ask him!’ shrieked Filch, turning his blotched and tear-stained face to Harry.
‘No second-year could have done this,’ said Dumbledore firmly. ‘It would take Dark Magic of the most advanced –’
Chamber of Secrets - page 108 - Bloomsbury - chapter 9, The Writing On the Wall
I have always wondered why Dumbledore didn't know immediately that there was a Basilisk within the castle. This is mainly due on my part to the fact that Dumbledore understands Parseltongue, and I (meaning just me -- YMMV) think he should have been able to hear the Basilisk running around in the pipes, hissing about killing and blood and death, and surely would have known a Basilisk causes a person to become Petrified¹. The above passage seems to suggest there are other types of magic aside from a magical creature -- Dark Magic, clearly -- that can cause a person to become Petrified. We have Petrificus Totalus as an example of a body binding charm. Is there any explanation in the books or from J.K. Rowling, or on a credible Harry Potter website, as to what other kinds of magic causes Petrification? A spell or charm? A potion? Eating a certain kind of plant?
¹It does occur to me that perhaps cases where Basilisk victims were petrified, instead of outright killed, had never been documented before, which is why Dumbledore didn't consider a Basilisk immediately. Basilisks are so lethal; the circumstances that caused each of the Basilisk victims in Chamber of Secrets to be only Petrified instead of killed were all very unique: Colin's camera, water reflection, a hand mirror, Nearly Headless Nick, etc.