The same thing Sauron wanted with the other Rings: Complete domination of middle earth.
TolkienGateway.net wiki - Rings of Power
His original plan is most obvious in the Rings of Men, which slowly corrupted the users until they were fully under his power. He wanted to do the same with the elves and dwarves.
The dwarves were not dominated, so the rings corrupted them by making them greedy, xenophobic and territorial. These are traits Sauron could also find useful.
The dwarven rings influence was that the dwarves stayed mostly out of the way of his other plans. The dwarves also caused endless trouble to the elves during the 3rd age, and that could be a useful side effect of the greed.
Four rings were destroyed by dragons, probably sent by Sauron. Sauron recaptured the other three dwarven rings, and presumably most of the dwarven treasure with them.