I remember reading about this book in a blog post one time. There’s a group of people on a spaceship who are immortal, who spend 5000 years proving a mathematical theorem, simply because they can. There is a group of crabs, or maybe scorpions, who live on an asteroid, and derive some form of advanced mathematics, possibly orbital mechanics, completely independently of anyone else using their experiences in their environment.
I think the manner of the blog post (which was possibly written by the author) implied it was recent, but I barely remember it.
It was probably mentioned on the personal website of the author, and the whole thing may have been either part of a serialized sci-fi publication, or its own standalone story.