A futuristic soldier's abilities are augmentated through surgery to his bones and he becomes a super soldier. He's not the only one. After he leaves the military, he becomes some sort of Policeman. Technological advances have made him an outdated asset and the proceedure used to make him into a super soldier is no longer practiced. As he ages, his bones hurt, but he keeps on fighting the good fight, possibly until he dies in the line of duty. I don't think the story takes place on Earth.
The Cobra series of novels by Timothy Zahn matches a few of these points.
To fight an alien invasion humans use "bionic augmentation" to create super soldiers. The treatment includes ceramic laminates on bones which makes them unbreakable. Long term effects include severe joint pain as I recall.
Once the alien invasion is dealt with, these super soldiers are unable to fit into peace time society. They are sent along with a colonizing expedition to a different planet with dangerous wild life to act as policemen and security.
The story follows one family of such super soldiers on this frontier planet.
This Wikipedia entry describes the series.
The first book and part of the second book is available online here.