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The box artwork for the Catan series of games shows a gigantic sun.

The original version on the game box.
The original version on the game box.

Some of the art from the game, Settlers of Catan.
An art cover from a later edition

Judging from size of the sun, its color, the sky's color, and the apparent, abundant life on the world, just how big is the sun in the world of Catan?

In this piece for another Catan game, the sun is still clearly enormous.

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    @Danvad - In that case, you are asking about a pre-existing work of fiction, in which case, there's an argument for the question being left open, although it will ultimately be up to the users voting on whether to close this question or not. Commented Jul 6 at 23:17
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    Incidentally, this is why I think anyone advising users to ask on other sites should probably link to the help page for what's considered on-topic, rather than the top-level site.
    – Kevin
    Commented Jul 6 at 23:26
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    @Danvad - What Valorum is pointing out here is that you've undermined the chances of this question being allowed to remain open with all your talk about worldbuilding, which is something we don't deal with here. If you removed the comments about worldbuilding from the question, and simply asked whether or not the star shown in that artwork corresponds to any real world star, and if so, what type, it would be hard for anyone to justify why this question shouldn't be left open (or reopened, if it's already been closed). Commented Jul 6 at 23:30
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    @Danvad - If your goal is to make the question on-topic for SFF:SE then all the worldbuilding stuff about the star type is completely irrelevant, so I've removed it.
    – Valorum
    Commented Jul 6 at 23:49
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    I’m voting to close this question because the community has indicated Catan is off-topic on meta.
    – Null
    Commented Jul 10 at 19:20

2 Answers 2

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Revised Answer:

The sun of Catan is our own sun, as Catan is located on Earth.

We know this from the Almanac of the Starfarers spin-off (there may be other indicators of this in other Catan media, but this where I happened to run across it):

"Humans found their first colonies during the 26th century. They are named Catanian Colonies, after an island in the Atlantic Ocean. Due to the growing population of Catanian Colonies, Earth's government decides to establish further colonies in planetary sytems with uninhabited planets."

The appearance of the sun being so large is the same as described below, the Moon Illusion...


Original Answer:

Based on our real world science of classifying stars and which ones can support habitable zones...

The sun of Catan would be a G or K type star and therefore would have a size between 0.45 and 1.04 solar masses (i.e., from about half the size of to slightly larger than our own sun).

The relative size as depicted in the art can be chalked up to the "Moon Illusion" although:

Even though we've been observing it for thousands of years, there's still not a satisfying scientific explanation for exactly why we see it.

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The closer the viewer is to a specific object, the larger the object looks. The farther the viewer is from that same specific object, the smaller the object looks.

And there exist lenses which can make an object look farther way or smaller, and lenses which can make an object appear closer or larger.

From Earth the Sun and the Moon appear to have an angular diameter of about 30 arc minutes or half a degree, but the Sun is hundreds of times farther away than the Moon, so it has hundreds of times the size of the Moon in order to appear the same size as the Moon as seen from Earth.

Everyone who looks at the moon with their eyes knows it looks about as large as dime held at arm's length.

But everyone has seen movie scenes like in E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982) or Star Trek V: the Final Frontier where the Moon appears enormous. Because it is shot using telephoto lenses.

And there are lots of movie and tv scenes set on other planets in which other worlds - moons, or stars, or other nearby planets - appear enormous in the skies of those planets. And I have to wonder whether the special effects showing those worlds in the sky are supposed to be what you would see using your unaided eye or using a telephoto lens.

And I have to wonder whether the illustrations of the surface of Catan are supposed to show the horizon and the sun of Catan seen with the unaided eye, or through a telephoto lens.

The yellowish color of the Sun is an indication of its surface temperature. And considering how large an angular diameter it seems to have, many people might claim that Catan would have to be so close to its star or sun that Catan would be as hot as Venus and uninhabitable.

Thus the possiblity that the illustrations show the sun of Catan through a telephoto lens might be the only way to make it possible for Catan to be habitable.

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    To quote Father Ted: "this one is small. But the ones out there are far away. Small, far away..."
    – user25730
    Commented Jul 10 at 0:42

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