In "A Memory of Light",
how did the farmers and regular people come back to fight again?
Mat told the Asha'man that it's a story he'd tell him later. I must have missed something.
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The village they die in is Hinderstap.
Back in The Gathering Storm, Chapter 28 "Night in Hinderstap", we learn that because the pattern is broken, each night the village and those in it reset itself. The encyclopedia sums up that portion of the chapter:
At the fine inn, Mat recognizes the cook that he killed! He thinks they are ghosts until they reach a spot of intense fighting the night before and see no blood on the ground. Barlden comes up and offers to explain. This has been going on for several months, since just before the Feast of Abram. Everyone goes crazy at dusk, killing everyone they can. In the morning, they all wake in their own beds. Barlden dreamed of killing old man Garken only to find him alive the next day. Sammrie the cooper had relatives come to visit. They were murdered that night and then became permanent residents.
Essentially, Mat used this quirk of the pattern to let the Shadow think that battle had been won, and they were brought back the next day where they remained until Mat could use them.
The wiki has this to say on Hinderstap:
Every evening, after the sun sets, every one of the villagers loses all awareness of the present, and goes into a mad rage. Every man, woman, and child unconsciously begins to murderously attack each other, and almost all the residents are killed by each other. However, as soon as the sun rises again on the following morning, the villagers all wake up in their beds, the dead no longer dead, and the only sign of anything having happened during the night are damages to buildings and clothing. Not a drop of blood is seen, and the people have no recollection at all. The events then repeat themselves every night.
This loop is completely inescapable, as the villagers have discovered. Even if they leave the town, or even kill themselves during the day time, they still disappear from where they are once the sun rises and reappear in their own beds again.
If someone from outside the village is present during the night and is killed during the townspeople's rage, then they too become part of the loop, and will start awaking in any one of the vacant beds in the village, usually in the inns.