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I have seen all of the Star Wars movies, but I have not read any of the books. I would like to know if the science of the Lightsabers was ever explained, and, if so, what is it?

marked as duplicate by DVK-on-Ahch-To, John O, K-H-W, Micah, NikolaiDante Feb 11 '13 at 15:19

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From the Lightsaber article on Wookipedia (Mechanics and Specification section):

The typical lightsaber hilt consisted of a metal cylinder between twenty and thirty-five centimeters in length. However, the size of individuals hilts varied drastically, as the weapon was tailored to the creator's specific needs and preferences. The lightsaber mechanisms were contained within the hilt. High levels of energy generated by a high-output Diatium power cell was unleashed through a series of focusing lenses and energizers that converted the energy into plasma. The plasma was projected through a set of focusing crystals that lent the blade its properties and allowed for the adjustment of blade length and power output. The ideal number of crystals was three, though only one was required.

Once focused by the crystals, the plasma was sent through a series of field energizers and modulation circuitry within the emitter matrix that further focused it, making it into a coherent beam of energy that was projected from the emitter.The blade typically extended about a meter before being arced by the blade containment field back to a negatively charged fissure ringing the emitter, where it was channeled back to the power cell by a superconductor, completing the circuit.

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