It's to be inferred that yes, it can, if there are no blocks in place. In ST:Voyager S01E11, 'State of Flux', at the 41:38 mark:
JANEWAY: Minor technology that could change the balance of power in this quadrant.
SESKA: Change it in our favour! That is all that matters at this point. Building a
base of power in this quadrant. You are a fool, Captain, and you're a fool to follow
her. I can't imagine how I ever loved you. Computer, command XJL.
(Seska beams out.)
CHAKOTAY: Computer, override transport in progress.
COMPUTER: Unable to comply. Security lockout is in place.
JANEWAY: Computer, identify destination of transport.
COMPUTER: A Kazon vessel fourteen kilometres off the port bow.
Now, keep in mind that that as the Transporter scans, it also dematerializes the subject:
Next, the lifeform or object to be beamed was scanned on the quantum
level, using a molecular imaging scanner. At this point, Heisenberg
compensators took into account the position and direction of all
subatomic particles composing the object or individual and created a
map of the physical structure being disassembled, amounting to
billions of kiloquads of data.
An active phaser caught in the transport process Simultaneously, the
object was broken down into a stream of subatomic particles, also
called the matter stream. While certain types of energy could be
transported safely, active phaser beams would be disrupted during this
breakdown process. (TNG: "Datalore") The matter stream was briefly
stored in a pattern buffer while the system compensates for Doppler
shift to the destination.
My example(possibly the only one), at the top, of an attempt to command the abortion of a Transporter-use mid-use was one where they could have possibly cared less[er] about the resulting health/destruction of the subject.
Technically, I would have to think the computer would have a routine, upon receiving an override, to finish the scan, and then transport subject back to starting location rather than target one. Unfortunately, the examples seem limited.