TL;DR: NO. But kinda yes, in a weak form of clusters of frequent features.
Two of the most typical features include being somehow "undead" or "not alive"; and feeding on human blood and/or life force.
One way to look at this is to ask what a canon typically is:
Wiki defines canon thusly: Canon (Latin canon from Greek κανών "measuring rod, standard") may refer to any standard or convention.
Implied in this definition is that there's some body of people who are responsible for formulating the standard or enforcing the convention.
This is even more clear if you consider that canon in literature hails from religious term, which is defined as "Canon law, the body of laws and regulations made by or adopted by ecclesiastical authority"
So, on that level, there is and can be no canon, since there exists no formal body to define what a "correct" vampire is, or somehow hold SFF creators responsible to hold to that canon. As an extra downside, the origin of vampires lies in folk legends of very varying cultures, so they are inherently divergent.
But may be there some sort of "organically grown" canon, e.g. some features that are "universally" accepted to be "vampirical", even if there's no formal enforcement/definition?
But no. Your question states:
there are certain characteristics of vampires that are required to make them "vampires" instead of, say, zombies - that is not really true.
Some vampires drink blood, some "life force".
Some are nocturnal, some are not.
Some are Christianish (e.g. related to Satan, afraid of crosses/sliver), some from non-Christian mythology exhibit neither.
This is exhibited both up and down the creation timeline - wildly different "vampirish" folk tales from assorted cultures in the past, and even more wildly different vampire reimaginings in modern culture, from Stoker, to Nosferatu, to "Librarian 3", to ahem Twilight.
Having said that, there are certain sets of features that are shared by many (yet not all, and not necessarily even majority) of portrayals of vampires. The following heavily borrows from Vampire@Wiki and List of vampire traits in folklore and fiction@Wiki, so for a real complete list you should stop reading this answer and instead read those 2 full Wiki articles: