The phenomenon is called "Stellar Drift", and it is referenced in a few episodes.
Stellar drift is a natural occurrence where stars slowly move. Due to
this phenomenon, every several thousand years the Stargate network
shuts down temporarily and starts a Correlative update system to
counteract it. (SG1: "Children of the Gods", "Avenger 2.0")
The glyphs themselves do not change, but according to the first/second episode in SG1, the addresses change over thousands of years.
Since Abydos and Earth are close neighbors in the stargate system, that's the only address that works from the Earth gate at first.
Therfore, when SG1 finds the cartouche with gate addresses, and SG1 finds that they don't actually work from the Earth gate, Carter figures out the issue with stellar drift and ends up running a translation program to translate the 5,000 year old addresses into their current equivalents.
They later find out this was one of the drawbacks to not having a DHD for the Earth gate. It's the DHD that runs the Correlative update to adjust for stellar drift.