At least during TOS, I don't think it was totally clear, but it can be inferred pretty easily. You can also infer the opposite, although it is a little bit harder.
Most likely, that's assumed from its introduction in TOS 2x05, Amok Time. When Spock is explaining to Kirk, he's describing the Pon farr in entirely gender-neutral terms, up until the end:
Kirk: "What kind of biology?"
Spock: "Vulcan biology."
Kirk: "You mean the biology of Vulcans? Biology, as in, reproduction? Well, Mr. Spock, it happens to the birds and the bees-"
Spock: "The birds and the bees are not Vulcans, Captain."
Spock: "How do Vulcans choose their mates? Haven't you wondered?"
Kirk: "I guess the rest of us assume that it's done quite logically."
Spock: "No. It is not. We shield it with ritual and customs shrouded in antiquity. You humans have no conception. It strips our mind from us, brings a madness which rips away our veneer of civilization. It is the Pon farr, the time of mating."
Spock: "No, nor am I a man. I'm a Vulcan. I'd hoped I would be spared this, but the ancient drives are too strong. Eventually they catch up with us. We are driven by forces we cannot control, to return home and take a wife. Or die."
I see two basic interpretations of this, going either way:
- Spock was speaking entirely gender-neutral for most of it, only referring specifically to gender ("wife" rather than "mate") right at the end. He was speaking in generalities, but his situation weighed on him more heavily as he described it to Kirk, eventually falling to describing his own situation. This would imply that Pon farr is experienced by both males and female Vulcans.
- Spock was trying to emphasize that this is a difference between humans and Vulcans, more than anything else, and speaking in generalities ("Vulcans" rather than "Vulcan male") came much easier to him. Especially given that this is such a personal, hidden part of Vulcan society.
Spock may call it the "time of mating", but seeing as how he was the only Vulcan showing the effects of Pon farr at the time, it doesn't seem to be any sort of mating season - it's more like a part of their personal biology, like a very, very severe puberty.
Later in the episode, Spock says this:
"By our parents arrangement. A ceremony, while we were about seven years of age. Less than a marriage, but more than a betrothal. One touches the other in order to feel each other's thoughts. In this way, our minds were locked together, so that at the proper time, we would both be drawn to koon-ut-kal-if-fee."
So they're, well, synced up at that point. It's how T'Pring knew it was time, even though she didn't experience Pon farr that we know of. But remember what Spock said earlier? "We shield it with ritual and customs shrouded in antiquity.". We don't know what all those customs are, but the koon-ut-kal-if-fee, the "marriage or challenge", is definitely one of them. One outcome is that the female can decline the male in favor of another. So it's possible that the ritual when they were children enforces this dynamic, preventing Vulcan females from experiencing the same extremes in emotion as the males.
That said, I am inclined to agree it was intended to be male-only. It feels like more of a stretch to argue the other way, like I have tried above. Occam's razor and all - I've had to usurp one of the Vulcan rituals and give it extra effects on their minds for the results to go that way.