I read a book in the last couple years i could have sworn I got off of the New York Times bestseller list, but I'm having a hard time remembering the title - it was the first of a new series and I wanted to go back and see if the others had been written yet.
The storyline involves a youth and his friend that live in a small village - they are cast out of the village and head towards a nearby city.
the protagonist can go back in time and teaches his friend how to leave messages in the past as well... they meet a young girl who can phase out at the cost of slowing her personal time down.
there is a subplot describing the origin of the settlement on the planet - evidently it was a ship from earth that used a new kind of FTL engine. the travel was subconsciously affected by the ship's pilot and they ended up somewhere unexpected. the AI of the ship determined that the pilot was unique and ended up creating a segregated settlement of his ancestors on the planet.
the protagonist, his friend and the girl get in trouble in the city and attempt to escape across the barrier (which causes insanity and fear in those that try to cross) between the different settlements where they meet one of the original AI robots that established the colony after the earth-ship arrived.