Most wine seems to be described mainly by it's taste and smell and I'm no expert so I wouldn't be able to say if these are based on wines from our world or not. However, there is a reference to mulled wine that we have in our world. It is referenced quite a lot either as mulled wine or hot, spiced wine and seems to be a favourite among the men of the Night's Watch for obvious reasons.
"It was the cold," Gared said with iron certainty. "I saw men freeze last winter, and the one before, when I was half a boy. Everyone talks about snows forty foot deep, and how the ice wind comes howling out of the north, but the real enemy is the cold. It steals up on you quieter than Will, and at first you shiver and your teeth chatter and you stamp your feet and dream of mulled wine and nice hot fires.
A Game of Thrones, Prologue
Wheels of white cheese were set at every table, above and below the salt, and flagons of hot spice wine and chilled autumn ale were passed up and down the tables.
A Clash of Kings, Bran III
There are mentions of other types of wines as well though I can't say if these are based off of real wines or not.
A type of red wine that is extremely sweet and fruity.
His father took off the man's head with a single sure stroke. Blood sprayed out across the snow, as red as summerwine.
A Game of Thrones, Bran I
He settled back in his place on the bench among the younger squires and drank. The sweet, fruity taste of summerwine filled his mouth and brought a smile to his lips.
One of the squires interrupted the bawdy story he'd been telling to make room at the table for their lord's brother. Benjen Stark straddled the bench with long legs and took the wine cup out of Jon's hand. "Summerwine," he said after a taste. "Nothing so sweet. How many cups have you had, Jon?"
A Game of Thrones, Jon I
I believe this is just wine with honey added to it. Though it could be a reference to mead but I doubt this as mead is referred to by name in the books.
So she sat in her wedding silks, nursing a cup of honeyed wine, afraid to eat, talking silently to herself. I am blood of the dragon, she told herself. I am Daenerys Stormborn, Princess of Dragonstone, of the blood and seed of Aegon the Conqueror.
A Game of Thrones, Daenerys II
Sweet amber wine from the Summer Isles
On the eighteenth night of their journey, the wine was a rare sweet amber from the Summer Isles that he had brought all the way north from Casterly Rock, and the book a rumination on the history and properties of dragons.
A Game of Thrones, Tyrion II
Obviously some wine is better than others and Illyrio seems to have fine wines.
They gorged themselves on horseflesh roasted with honey and peppers, drank themselves blind on fermented mare's milk and Illyrio's fine wines, and spat jests at each other across the fires, their voices harsh and alien in Dany's ears.
A Game of Thrones, Daenerys II
Tyrion mentions a fine sweet Dornish wine later on which could possibly be what Illyrio had.
Tyrion sat alone, sipping at what remained of the fine sweet Dornish wine. Servants came and went, clearing the dishes from the table.
A Clash of Kings, Tyrion II
As Dany lifted her goblet to drink, Rhaegal sniffed at the wine and drew his head back, hissing. "Your dragon has a good nose." Xaro wiped his lips. "The wine is ordinary. It is said that across the Jade Sea they make a golden vintage so fine that one sip makes all other wines taste like vinegar. Let us take my pleasure barge and go in search of it, you and I."
A Clash of Kings, Daenerys III