Logically, there would be no reason to sterilize the 'grown' humans, as they aren't able to breed while isolated in pods. In Matrix 1 we see humans being grown from embryos in the harvester fields, which implies that the grown human females don't have their bodies used for gestation, so someone who was freed from the Matrix after experiencing pregnancy and childbirth within it may find themselves in a body that had not, in fact, ever been pregnant; however, this would not prevent them from becoming so using natural methods.
The other evidence point supporting non-sterilization of grown humans is that the Architect specified that new populations of Zion were seeded by grown humans from the Matrix. If those people were unable to reproduce naturally, there would be no Zion and thus, no Matrix rebooting protocol.
It is mentioned that Neo is unusually old to be successfully freed from the Matrix. This suggests that the scenario described above, of a woman being freed after having experienced virtual childbirth, would be unusual (but not impossible if she were freed in, say, her early to mid-teens). Now, this is interesting because the structure of the Matrix dictates that everyone experiences it from birth onward, so an infant, once harvested, would have to have been assigned to a woman who had experienced a virtual pregnancy. Therefore, the woman's 'child' could still be plugged into the Matrix after she was freed.
This highlights one of the more poignant issues that the movies never addressed: freeing someone from the Matrix leaves a person knowing that all the people they have loved - parents, children, siblings, friends - are still trapped in the Matrix. It would be only human for those people to want to visit their loved ones when entering the Matrix, and to work to free those who are young enough to bear the transition. But since the machines are capable of overwriting any consciousness in the Matrix with Agents, it would be exceedingly dangerous to draw their attention. I shall leave further speculation on the emotional ramifications to the reader.