In the Dragonball series, Goku's power increases as he fights with his enemies. He becomes Super Saiyan, then Super Saiyan level 1 to Super Saiyan level 100. Is the power of Goku unlimited?
And was Gohan superior to Goku in the context of power?
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My response assumes that we are discussing the theoretical potential of Goku himself. Limiting myself to the Canon Dragonball universe (no DBGT).
To correct your statement, the only modes of super-saiyan seen thus far are Super Saiyan 1,2,3 and God-mode. Bills, the lord of destruction was able to best Goku. Had Goku managed to stay in God-mode the fight might have lasted longer or ended differently, but God-mode is something Goku doesn't like (because of pride), and he let the power leave him.
Goku's physical potential is the same as any other pure-blood saiyan. Any time you get hurt, your body recovers so that the next time you experience that, you will not be hurt (as bad). His unique strength is granted by his purity of heart and determination.
I would say the only limit to Goku's potential is time since the deities of his universe have a special affinity for him and let him return to life from death basically whenever he wants. However, as he gets stronger, the number of opponents he can actually struggle against goes down drastically. Lord Bills, is said to be able to destroy an entire galaxy. He is the opposite of the Gods, and is said to be the most potent entity to ever exist. Goku was able temporarily put up a small fight against this entity.
If we pretend Goku gets used to using God-mode, and fights Billz over and over I think the upper limit of his power would match Billz, but never exceed.
Edit - Second question "And was Gohan superior to Goku in the context of power?" For a moment, yes, but ultimately, No. Right after Gohan got upgraded by Old Kai, I believe he was stronger than SSJ3 Goku. However, Movie 13 shows that Goku was able to rock the boss, and Mystic Gohan couldn't even land a blow. Anyone can undergo the Unlocking ceremony that Old Kai performed on Gohan, Gohan was just unique in two ways. First, he was actually unlocked twice (first on Namek). Second, he had a lot of 'potential' so the ceremony took a very long time. I think the DBZ saga has shown that racial purity provides a higher power potential, but that the more dilute you become, the earlier in life you can approach the limits of that potential.
SSJ3 drains power crazy fast. So Goku might have a problem in a prolonged fight. However, I still think Goku would win. He is simply the better fighter regardless of power levels. Gohan has gone soft like Krillin. Goku trains.