The title I remember is "The Rat Race" but Google has not been helpful in finding it so that may be wrong. I recall reading it in the 1970's, probably a novel.
Setting begins in or around a research facility, where rats and mice are experimented on for some kind of make you smarter drug, at first the mice and rats excel at the tests, then quite suddenly they stop improving (and maybe regress). When they got smart enough to realize what was going on they started failing the tests on purpose, then they managed to escape.
They set up some underground housing, wire in electricity (and maybe running water). As I recall the majority of the book was the challenges they faced after escaping.
Definitely not Ninja Turtles, I read the book before the Ninja Turtles existed (or before they where popular enough to gain my notice)