What is the Star Trek "physics" difference between phaser and disruptor technologies? It seems that only Star Fleet possessed 'phased energy' technology while all aggressive aliens in the Star Trek universe possessed disruptor technology. Why is that?
Phaser is a specific device which shoots a beam of mysterious particles known as nadions.
Disruptor seems to be a broad term for all other energy weapons, especially used by other cultures. Possibly this term is also restricted to the devices generating photon beams (i.e. standard E-M waves), what would make it a "less elegant" solution than phaser, but this is not clear.
It seems that Disruptors cause damage by exciting the molecular bonds of targets.
On the other hand Phasers are direct energy weapons. They work by focusing energy. They make a beam of a fictional type of subatomic particles called "rapid nadions".
Phaser beams can be adjusted in both width and output. Because of this they can be used in wide variety of applications from hand torches to starship weapons and they can be "set to stun".
I think disruptors are only used to destroy the target. They are not versatile as phasers.
Roddenberry wanted to depict a future where humanity had grown out of the vices evident in the 1960s. So, the phaser was conceived as a suitably civilized weapon which, among its other capabilities, could overcome an opponent in a manner that would cause no lasting harm. All that stuff about nadions was retconned well after TOS. The first reference to "disruptor" was in connection with the Klingons, a race largely defined by their brutality. It would have made sense to equip a brutal race with a suitably brutal weapon. Despite their post-TOS depictions as warlike but highly civilized (their first appearance in TOS "Balance of Terror" made them seem a lot like "Romans in space"), the Romulans also deserved a less-than-civilized weapon, so they got disruptors too.
Although the modern definitions of a phaser is a device that emits a stream of "nadions", I seem to recall (maybe someone knows the source for what follows?) that the initial explanation for a "phaser" was based on advancements in "lasers". Since light is composed of both particles (photons) and waves, a laser is essentially a "coherent beam" of light in which all the particles/photons travel in a single direction (a laser "beam"). The "phaser" was an advancement that took it a step further and supposedly got all of the particles to move "in phase" essentially meaning all the photons moved in a single "coherent wave" of "in-phase" particles, thus a "phaser".
The Phaser releases a controlled stream of "nadions" which are subatomic particles that cause instantaneous disruption of the electroweak and strong nuclear force holding a material structure together. These particles convert the matter into neutrinos, thus making sure the matter is not broken down into photons, which would cause it to release nuclear level energy in the form of gamma rays and heat. We currently do not know how to do this though Frank Tipler hit upon a basic idea, as did a few others.
The stun effect is a setting of the phaser in which all the living target's neurons are directly overcome, causing a non lethal shut down of conciousness.
Disruptors are essentially a hand held antimatter generator. They shoot a stream of anti protons at a target, causing their material structure to implode on contact. They cannot be used for fine work such as cutting and welding like phasers, and cannot stun a target.
To recap, a disruptor is a hand held anti matter generator weapon, while a phaser is similiar, but more refined. Both of them cause the target structure to be disintegrated at the SUB atomic level. Electromagnetic weapons such as lasers and plasma work on the electromagnetic force level.
I gather phasers and disrupters are similar in action in that they both cause a targets matter to transition out of normal space, this is most noticable when a hand weapon is used, whether disruptor, or a phaser on a high setting. There is no explosion from released binding energy. Disruptors are built to maximise the distruction of the target, whether they use the same energising crystal is never mentioned, but with similar effects it is possible. Phasers have the same effect at maximum power setting but have the ability to use lower settings that have different effects, from heating objects, to stunning living orgasnisms. Phasers also seem less effective against heavy dense metals such as duranium used by the Cardasians and seem almost useless against monotanium used by the Hirogen. Federation ships are built of tritanium, a lightweight metal.
It was explained some time during season 1 or 2 of Enterprise, the description was given by LT. Malcolm reed(i think) could've been MAJ. Hayes, anywho they have two totally different designs and have only one commonality, disruptors emit a beam of visible light given off by some sort highly charged radioactive particles or wave of energy that renders the bonds between subatomic particles completely inert at the quantum level.
Fog aside, i can't see air, can you? Unless you could see the actual molecules of o2/n2 around the beam when fired, you wouldn't see the atoms of air dissolve into their basic parts, and nothing behind the target is effected because each shot fired from a pistol/rifle has a specific duration of time equating to the amount of particles/radiation needed to completely dissolve the subatomic bonds in the average sized humanoid. Ships are a better application for disruptors since there's no loss of beam strength when fired in a vacuum. Dissolving air would rob energy from disruptor beams making the length of the shot limited to a specific range. Phaser's, as said above, are the evolutionary apex of lasers, utilizing a structured beam of light as conduit for varying speed/strength pulses of highly charged subatomic particles fictionally known as Nadion's. Real particles that have the exact sames properties as nadion's, known as plasmon's, were created by accident for the first time less three years Ago.
A team of physicists experimenting with the how quantum entangled photons react as they pass through different mediums, fired lasers through graphene to create quantum entangled pairs of photons(high energy light subatomic particles with no mass and no electrical charge) then were immediately passed through a flawlessly symmetrical ionic quartz crystal, what exited the crystal was a brand new particle with the properties of both photons and electrons in perfect combination. The only particle having radiation energy that is tunable with wave frequency, electrical charge, as well as measureable mass. So from communicators/cell phones to antimatter/antihydrogen and all the way down to nadion's(known to science as plasmon's) Gene Roddenberry predicted it all, conspiracy theory for the day is that s.o.b. was a time traveler.
Disruptors (at least the ones used by Klingons) are superheated plasma from the warp core accelerated, pressurised and fired. The superheated plasma is the starship equivalent of electricity (for the weapons and warp coils only, impule uses a few nuclear fusion reactors), so it's like firing your fuel. It works by exciting molecular bonds in the hull, "disrupting" its existence. Phasers are powered by the superheated plasma from the warp, but are not the superheated plasma from the warp core. They are nadion particles (a fictional subatomic particle) fired in a focussed beam, which simply passes a ridiculous amount of energy into the target. This means that an unshielded warp ship can be instantly destroyed by a single shot, as their warp core overloads and breached, destroying the ship and everything in a radius.