- Kryptonian Atmosphere weakness in lieu of Kryptonite
- Lois who is in on Superman's secret identity from the beginning
- African-American Perry White
- Jonathan Kent who raises Superman without the benefit of helpful tropes
- Superman's debut is viewed with fear and skepticism rather than being an unparalleled success and easy success
- Superman's debut involves several interactions with the U.S. Government
- Superman's public debut involves fighting Kryptonians rather than a rescue
- Superman's costumed debut is necessitated by a moral obligation rather than pre-meditated reaction to an arbitrary accident
- Superman who naturally transitioned from farm work to itinerant positions (while looking for answers)
To be fair, when looking at a 75 year old icon, there is very little monolithic about his portrayal. Superman only gets held to that standard because he is the first superhero and because DC have been great stewards of the IP such that he maintains his place as a classical standard. That is to say, a standard or classic has no meaning if it is so radically changed at every turn that referring to it means something to different to everyone. If you look at other characters with much shorter histories, few have been as consistent over the years as Superman.
Lois discovering his identity from the outset is an innovation, but not necessarily as far off narratively as some may suggest. In this rendition we don't have the benefit of an on-screen Lana Lang relationship, who in many rendition is aware of Clark's abilities and a confidant early on.
The introduction of the Kryptonian Atmospheric weakness is a new twist, although there have been prior stories that indicated Earth's atmosphere is beneficial to Superman. 2010 Superior by Mark Millar, a comic that mixed Superman tropes, with Captain Marvel (now Shazam), and Millar's flair for deconstruction actually cited Earth's atmosphere as the source of strength for his Superman analog. The benefits of this allowed the filmmakers to forego Kryptonite and to tie Superman's powers to the Earth (mitigating some of the issues with the concept of "yellow sun radiation" some).
It is incorrect to claim that Superman here is uniquely unconcerned about collateral damage. Rather, when he has the opportunity to actually speak and exert his will, he saves people and cautions them to go inside. Everything else is within the heat of the moment and there is NO SUPERMAN who has not caused collateral damage in the heat of the moment. Even the most seasoned Superman is prone to acts of unnecessary destruction, largely because it is part of the power fantasy of the Superman. Few fantasize about endless restraint and monumental responsibility.
Superman does not stay locked in his Fortress of Solitude and mull on the world's problems, curing cancer, etc. but rather employs the physicality of his powers because that is what the audience, the market, tradition, and the diegetic situation all demand. I challenge you to watch any Superman film, TV series, or comic run and find no property damage by the end.
Incidentally, the correct figure is $12 million drone, not a $10 billion Federal satellite. The only satellite destroyed in the film was privately owned and marked Wayne Enterprises. To that end, consider the amount that NBA or NFL players are fined if they get in trouble... then consider the violation of civil rights the government committed against Lois Lane when they disappeared her on the mere suspicion of information (not to mention whatever interrogation tactics they may have used). $12M is a reasonable "stick" to show the government you mean business while rewarding them with the "carrot" of your trust and cooperation.
Man of Steel innovates by having the first African American Perry White. Additionally, it is the first Jonathan Kent who is forced to deal with a world without tropes... rather than rely on platitudes which work only in the comic book world, it presented a Jonathan Kent who hoped for and had faith in a great destiny for his son, but was equally confronted by the threat to Clark- and the world- if his secret were to be revealed too soon. In 1980, Jonathan would not have had the internet. Imagine his panic when the Kansas State metallurgist began to ask him question after question- which may lead to Clark's secret being blown, him being taken away, experimented upon, questioned without being able to provide answers- Jonathan would have grabbed the Key from the scientist, run from that place, trembling at how he nearly risked losing his son, breaking Martha's heart, etc. Man of Steel innovates by showing that Superman can still be relevant and mean something in a world without the tropes to protect his identity, to conveniently save his dad, to ensure the lives of everyone involved without collateral, and even the protection of his own innocence. It shows Superman can still go through all that and be the hero we want him to be.
The Superman who was lost because he wasn't sure if holding back was the right thing with Jonathan, held back nothing during the Black Zero Event... not his secrecy, not his ship, his command key, his people, his freedom, his life, or his innocence... he shed blood, like many servicemen before him, which would leave him marked- certainly- but with the assurance he did the right thing. Reaffirmed everyday that he sees his new city, new girlfriend, new job, new calling that he's waited his whole life to fulfill... every time he sees his mother, alive and well, and uses his powers publicly. The Superman after MOS has every reason to be of a positive disposition. Superman is analogous to emergency services, who can't do their jobs if they're burdened by those they didn't save, rather they move forwards on the basis that they did their best and will continue to do so... which is exactly what Superman did in MOS and why the last three scenes show an unburdened Superman.
Lastly, the film makes many innovations about and on Krypton. Many find their inspiration in prior versions, but the idea that Superman was uniquely gifted with free will and the bearer of all of Krypton's genes is an innovation.