Does anyone remember a movie circa 1961 where a team from earth/USA lands on a planet and the team members are killed one by one by some mysterious disease or fungal attack? I'm fairly sure the planet was either Venus, Jupiter or Mars.
Mutiny in Outer Space could be it, but it take place on the moon. The date is 1965.
Though rated only 5.1 on IMDB, it is rather well received.
Like babou said, Mutiny in Outer Space is most likely culprit. It's a black & white movie from 1965 but has more of a 50s feel for it.
From what I remember, a rocket takes off from the moon with collected ice samples and they stop at a space station where the rest of the movie takes place. One of the crewman ends up with this rapidly growing fungus on one of his limbs, leg or arm I think, and he's the first casualty. At some other point something hits the station which breaks the ice crystals open and the fungus grows into long tentacles.
Ring any bells?