United Federation of Planets has Section 31. Romulan Star Empire has Tal Shiar. Cardassian Union has Obsidian Order. Vulcans have V'Shar.
Do any of the major powers covered in detail in canon -- such as Klingons, Bajorans, Andorians, Ferengi -- basically, those that Starfleet has to deal with for more than one episode, have intelligence agencies mentioned?