In Robert Silverberg's 1988 novel "At Winter's End", humans have gone extinct after a comet impact and hundreds of thousands of years later, the recovered Earth is repopulated by humanlike creatures evolved from monkeys who were given a bit of human help (underground lairs to survive the ice age and possibly some genetic engineering). The monkey people worship five gods which are derived from human culture.
Dawinno, the god of destruction and change, is Charles Darwin. Mueri the consoler and Yissou the protector are Mary and Jesus. Friit the healer is Freud. However, I've been never able to figure out who inspired Emakkis the provider (the sequel specifies he "provides nourishment").