Considering that it is currently one of the biggest topics in astrophysics at the moment, I was wondering whether anything in the Star Trek universe had anything to say on this matter (pun intended). Are there any references to Dark Energy and/or Dark Matter in the Star Trek Universe (2009 reboot universe included) and, if so, are there conjectures made about the nature of either? Canon sources are preferred, but non-canon are also accepted.
Not in the reboot, but there are references to dark matter in the various series:
- High densities of dark matter can be very hazardous, as the Enterprise-D discovered in the Mars Oscura dark matter nebula.
- Archer and T'Pol discovered they could illuminate a dark matter nebula using metreon particles.
- Neelix told Kim and Paris of a time when he lost a nacelle due to the pressure built up by dark matter bow waves while traversing a dark matter nebula.
- Graviton ellipses are attracted to dark matter, such as dark matter asteroids.
- Dark matter lifeforms exist.
There is no mention of dark energy AFAICT.
Another answer here gives a thorough listing of references to dark matter in Star Trek, and is correct that no apparent references are made to dark energy in the television episodes or films.
There is a reference to dark energy, nevertheless, in The Physics of Star Trek by Lawrence M. Krauss, a theoretical physicist at Arizona State University. (The book's foreward was written by Professor Stephen Hawking.)
We currently have no idea whatsoever why this dark energy is out there, or what its origin is...there is no way it could be harnessed to do any useful work like transporting spacecraft around.
However, ignore for the moment the potential obstacles...
He then goes on to explain how one might use dark energy to "create and sustain the exotic matter and energy" required for propulsion in the Star Trek universe.
Star Trek writers were able to see the folly which is "Dark Matter" etc. This "missing" dark matter is nonsense. The "missing" energy/matter/etc. are the exotic Black Holes whose numbers (i.e.count/survey/understanding) is astounding. The "missing" dark matter is contained within the Dark Stars that are kinda hard to see, but common. Roddenberry said as much before he keeled.