Per this answer, in Forward the Foundation Hari Seldon had determined that his Foundation plan for humanity had the flaw of being too human-centric, operating under the assumption that there was no other sentient life in the universe.

This opposing answer suggests that Hari did not figure this out, as if he had then he would have built that into his plan in some way when he established the two Foundations.

Due to the nature of psychohistory it is unlikely that the first Foundation would have had any knowledge of this, therefore it would have had to have been up to the Second Foundation to protect humanity from external sentient threats. We see this sort of take place in Foundation and Empire with the Mule, although that was still human against human.

Is there any direct evidence that suggests that the Second Foundation had knowledge of the flaw in the Seldon Plan? Which would then be able to suggest whether Hari Seldon himself had actually figured it out?


1 Answer 1


The simplest way to answer this is to quote, from the end of Second Foundation.

And it is so inevitable. Hari Seldon left the Second Foundation behind him to maintain, improve, and extend his work.

Hari had to know that random factors would arise that threatened to derail his plan, and so he left behind an organization (the Second Foundation) charged with making any necessary adjustments and handling problems.

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    This doesn't really say they knew of the flaw revealed in Foundation and Earth. This simply says that Hari didn't believe himself, and by extension his Plan, to be infallible.
    – Xantec
    Apr 22, 2014 at 20:33
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    Part of my point is that there is an entire organization full of very smart people with bountiful resources and devoted, in part, to anticipating possible problems and coming up with contingency plans for those problems. There is no realistic way of knowing what flaws and shortcomings, of the original plan, they have uncovered and fixed by the time of Foundation and Earth. Apr 22, 2014 at 21:09

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