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As stated in the title, what kind/type of CPU and how much processing power does he have?

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As we learn in TNG "Measure of a Man" he has a positronic brain with 800 Quadrillion bit storage capacity and a computational speeds of 60 trillion operations per second.

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    No, positrons are antimatter - the counterpart of electrons. As far as I know the concept is "borrowed" from Isaac Asimov, but never explained as to why positrons are better than electrons. – Einer May 7 '14 at 11:52
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    It's so that he can (drum roll, maestro) think positively! (Applause, thrown garbage.) – user8719 May 7 '14 at 11:57
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    Yes, the "positronic brain" originated in Asimov's robot stories. Wikipedia claims: "When Asimov wrote his first robot stories in 1939 and 1940, the positron was a newly discovered particle and so the buzz word positronic — coined by analogy with electronic — added a contemporary gloss of popular science to the concept." – Royal Canadian Bandit May 7 '14 at 13:19
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    @RoyalCanadianBandit "gloss of popular science" seems fitting! All you need is a darn complicated insulation on every conductor to prevent matter-antimatter-reaction and all you get is an particle that behaves just like an electron. Only it's positively charged. Great. It's like paining a Ferrari in light blue. – Einer May 7 '14 at 13:27
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    By the sixth season episode The Quality of Life it is likely Data is capable of a good deal more than 60 trillion operations per second: FARALLON: Is it true that your computational speed is limited only by the physical separation of your positronic links? DATA: Actually, that is no longer the case. I have recently converted my interlink sequencer to asynchronous operation, which removed the performance constraint. – Xantec May 7 '14 at 14:59

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