In one TNG episode, Data lifts something that three other people could not. In the film First Contact and episodes with Borg, Data destroyed Borg with his bare hands.
How strong do people get after being infected by Borg drones?
Being flesh and blood humanoid but with nanite augmentation, the average Borg are a bit stronger than human and roughly on the strength level of a Klingon, though some would be stronger and some weaker depending upon their base and secondary function as well as originating species. Both Data and Worf have beaten Borg drones in hand to hand combat.
No Borg drone is on Data's strength level. In fact few species exist that can match Data's pure physical strength. Data's jeopardy during that combat sequence was not just from that one Borg with it's nanite injecting ability, but the dynamic danger of the whole combat situation. He actually dispatched that drone with relative ease. In fact, Data has wiped the floor with every Borg drone that he's engaged hand-to-hand.
The drone that Data created in the holodeck simulation was incrementally and artificially increased in strength far beyond what a drone possesses in order for Data to 'feel' that he was in real danger in order to recreate the emotion of 'anger'.
In TNG Descent Data fights hand to hand with a Borg drone. It's hard to tell with Data, when he really is on his physical limits. But in that scene he is, as is illuminated later, when Data attempts to re-enact that situation on the holodeck:
DATA: Geordi, the computer will require the voice authorisations of two senior officers in order to disable the safety routine. Will you help me?
LAFORGE: Data, wait a minute. That thing could kill you.
DATA: During the original incident the Borg presented a genuine danger to my life. Since the Holodeck safety routine is in place, I know my life is not in danger. Since I am trying to duplicate the conditions of the original incident as closely as possible, I must also attempt to duplicate the jeopardy as well.
From that we can infer, that a drone is about as strong as Data. Probably he is a tiny bit stronger since he wins the fight.
EDIT: One might object that Data is referring to the danger from "the Borg" not that specific Borg. But in that scene he is increasing the strength of that individual he is fighting with. All the other Borg present in that scene remain "weak". So he does not increase the strength of all the Borg to increase the danger (what would be logical if that is the source of the danger he tries to recreate). He increases the strength of that particular drone. So apparently that drone he fought was the one that put him into the danger of being killed.
Basically, as shown in First Contact, Data can literally throw Borg drones around with relative ease. Worf can defeat one with a weapon of some kind, even the butt of his phaser rifle. None of the humans stand a chance against them. You see one desperate security officer attempt to physically hit a drone with his phaser rifle, but the Borg barely notices. Quite unstoppable.
Based on that, I'd say a Vulcan could defeat a single drone, as their strength lies somewhere on the scale between Klingons and Data.
The interesting one is Lieutenant Hawk. The unfortunate Lieutenant gets carried off by a Borg drone during the fight on the deflector dish, screaming in pain as soon as it grabs his arm - so it's very strong. About two minutes later, he returns with an already significant amount of Borg implants down the side of his face. He grabs Picard's arm, but it's worth noting the Captain doesn't cry out, so either Hawk is still much weaker than a fully fledged drone, or Picard is just really tough. :p
Borg-Hawk hits Picard in the face and cracks his visor, and overpowers him fairly easily, so he's probably stronger than a human, already.
It makes sense that super strength would only be derived from extensive Borg implants in the limbs, and that would take a bit of time to happen, but there's clearly a near immediate strength enhancement just from the initial nanite infection.