StarPilot’s is an excellent point: it is very likely that no amount of magic could recall the prophecy to Trelawney’s mind, because unlike the case of the memory charms on Bertha Jorkins that Voldemort broke through (breaking Bertha in the process), the prophecy simply is not there in Trelawney’s mind, and never was. Whether Voldemort knows this is a different matter—I don’t believe we can say for certain either way—and it is also possible that memory charms could retrieve the prophecy from Trelawney’s mind.
In addition to that, however, it is in fact quite likely that Voldemort did not know Trelawney made the prophecy. The Dumbledore quote in the question makes it clear that Dumbledore believed Trelawney to be in grave danger, presumably out of an assumption that Voldemort knew who had made the prophecy and would come after them. But he may well have been mistaken.
When Snape overheard the prophecy, he obviously did not know what he was about to hear. His plan was to eavesdrop outside the door and listen in on a job interview Dumbledore had consented to take with a young woman seeking employment. That’s all he knew. There is nothing in the books, at least, that indicates that he knew who the woman was beforehand—and I doubt he cared much (before the prophecy was made, obviously).
As we know, he only heard half the prophecy before he was chucked out by Aberforth. He relayed as much as he’d heard to Voldemort, but since he presumably still didn’t know who the woman was, he could only relay the prophecy, not the identity of its Seer. Since Dumbledore—who doesn’t care for Divination otherwise—hires Trelawney on the spot, we must assume that he does so to protect her, because he realises the danger she may be in. His protection of her at Hogwarts takes place immediately.
Later on, when Snape repents and goes to Dumbledore, he becomes a spy against Voldemort, and he is hired at Hogwarts (as a spy against Dumbledore, as Voldemort believes). It is only at this point, when Snape is inside Hogwarts and with Trelawney already under Dumbledore’s protection, that Snape could possibly have found out, perhaps simply by recognising her voice, that it was she who made the prophecy—if indeed he ever did.
Assuming that he did find out, we do not know when; it may in fact have been after Voldemort’s failed attack on Harry. Even if it were before, though, Voldemort had apparently been happy to accept that Snape did not know who the Seer was, and since Snape was now actually working against Voldemort, there seems to be little reason for him to volunteer the information that he has discovered her identity while at Hogwarts. He could easily simply not bring up the matter again.
Since only four people in the world knew who had made the prophecy (Dumbledore, Harry, Snape, and whoever made the record in the Ministry for Magic and wrote Trelawney’s initials on the little globe thingy), and since none of those people is very likely to give the secret away to anyone, there is really no strong reason to believe that Voldemort ever knew who made the prophecy.
I would conjecture that Dumbledore overestimated Voldemort’s information here, and that Trelawney would in fact have been quite safe even without his protections.