As we learn in the first Thor movie and in episodes of Agents of SHIELD, many of the stories of the Norse gods on Earth were likely influenced by early interactions with Asgardians. Lady Sif mentions one time that there was a possibility of Asgardian-Midgardian interaction.
From the conversation between Lady Sif and Agent Coulson in Yes Men (S01E15):
Lady Sif: The Frost Giants tried to conquer your Earth a millennia ago, but Asgard drove them away.
Given that many stories of Odin, Thor, and Asgard found their way into our mythology, it seems plausible (even likely) that a great battle for Midgard might also show up in mythology.
I'm particularly interested in real-world mythology, but if the myth/references only show up within the comics/MCU, then so be it.