In the ringworld-novels of Larry Niven the author uses a giant ring around the sun as setting. The concept that is going more extrem in this direction is a Sphere around a sun. That concept is called Dyson Sphere. Does a work of SF explores this concept?
The 'The Time Ships' (1995) by Stephen Baxter has the most interesting depiction of a Dyson Sphere I have read in Science Fiction. The novel is a sequel to the classic ‘The Time Machine’ (1895) by H. G. Wells (where there are no Dyson Spheres).
A more recent book with a memorable Dyson Swarm is ‘House of Suns’ (2008) by Alastair Reynolds.
In Iain M Banks book, Matter on the Shellworld of Sursamen, which is multiple concentric dyson shells built on top of each other with a artificial sun on each level and each level holding a more advanced alien race than the level below. In the core lives a super advanced alien, and on level 7 lives the parasites that lived on the shell of the advanced alien, but have advanced enough to have the their own level.
In "Implied Spaces", by Walter Jon Williams, there are several Dyson spheres, although they are each in their own closed universe, reachable only by wormhole so it's maybe not your run-of-the-mill Dyson sphere.
The Halo universe has Dyson Spheres. The setting of Halo:Wars was a Dyson Sphere.
The ones that come to mind, are:
A gravity pulse from a research station awakens an alien buried in the moon who opens a wormhole and takes Earth elsewhere. And the chaos that ensues.
Turns out there is a species that grabs planets, and brings them into solar systems where they have already built Dyson Spheres.
Great series. By Roger Allen Macbride
Already many good answers... I'll just throw out the Virga series by Schroeder, starting with the first book in the series, Sun of Suns. It is a fantastic series, with each book continuing the story, focusing on a different main character.