We finally learn this answer in Avengers: Infinity War. Red Skull is shown to have ended up on Vormir where the Soul Stone is located. He says that he attempted to acquire the Soul Stone, but doing so required the sacrifice of someone you love. Having no one he could sacrifice, he ended up as a guide for others trying the same path.
Thanos: How is it you know this place so well?
Red Skull: A lifetime ago, I, too, sought the stones. I even held one in my hand. But it cast me out, banished me here. Guiding others to a treasure I cannot possess. What you seek lies before you. As does what you fear.
Thanos: What's this?
Red Skull: The price. Soul hold a special place among the Infinity Stones. You might say it has a certain wisdom.
Thanos: Tell me what it needs.
Red Skull: To ensure that whoever possesses it... Understands its power... The stone demands a sacrifice.
Thanos: Of what?
Red Skull: In order to take the stone you must lose that which you love. A soul...For a soul.
Avengers: Infinity War