No definitive answer exists, but it seems fairly likely that it was not.
(Or if there is, I don’t know about it. I can’t find anything in Deathly Hallows, the supplementary books, J.K. Rowling interviews or what I have of Pottermore. Of course, it may be answered when Pottermore reaches Deathly Hallows.)
As well as Dumbledore encouraging everybody to use the name (as the HP Wiki suggests), I think the general surprise at its design suggests that this is a new development.
Two examples of people who would know about the Taboo from the First War, but showed no knowledge of it:
Harry and Hermione. When Ron first mentions the Taboo, Harry doesn’t understand the term:
“…and how did you find out about the Taboo?” he asked Harry after explaining the many desperate attempts of Muggle-borns to evade the Ministry.
Hermione is sitting in the same tent, and doesn’t bother to interrupt or point out that it’s been used before.
Lupin. When Lupin arrives at Grimmauld Place and the trio explain how they were detected after fleeing the wedding, he’s very surprised:
“How did they find you so quickly? It’s impossible to track anyone who Apparates, unless you grab hold of them as they disappear! […] I can’t see how they could have tracked you to Tottenham Court Road, that’s worrying, really worrying.”
He was part of the original Order of the Phoenix, so surely would have encountered it had it been deployed.
When the Order of the Phoenix was re-formed, they must have reviewed the events of the First War. That’s how, for example, they knew to send envoys to the Giants, because they knew Voldemort had recruited them before, and would try to do the same again.
But the Taboo, which is a lethal mistake that can be avoided easily, doesn’t get a single mention in the three years since Voldemort’s rebirth. That’s a very dangerous omission.
So I’m fairly confident that the Taboo is a new development for the Second War, and hadn’t been used before.