In Captain America: The Winter Soldier, it's revealed that in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU), there was an Operation Paperclip at the end of World War II, just as in real life. In the MCU, the Soviet Union counterpart to Paperclip created the Winter Soldier, so the real world projects ended up having super-science ramifications in the MCU. On the American side of this, we see the SSR (and later S.H.I.E.L.D.) absorb these scientists and their super-science accomplishments, but what about the Soviet Union?
Did the Soviet Union (and the countries it later split into) have a S.H.I.E.L.D. equivalent? What did they accomplish, besides the Winter Soldier?