It's well-known that Superman has entrusted Batman with a Kryptonite ring, in case if he ever went rogue. He even believes that he's entrusting his life to Batman, as can be seen in the scan below (Superman: The Man of Steel #21).
However, in receiving the ring, Batman loses all of his major advantages: the element of surprise, and time to plan and prepare. Should Superman turn evil, it is likely that he would recognize Batman as a threat, and immediately finish off the person holding the only weapon capable of destroying him.
Besides, even if the Dark Knight had all the time in the world to prepare, Superman has several insurmountable advantages. With his super-speed, he could crush Batman before he has any time to react. With his heat vision and ice-breath, he could destroy him from a safe distance. With his super-strength, he could throw projectiles from afar. Furthermore, Batman would not be able to escape, regroup and come up with a new plan when faced with an opponent that possesses super-hearing, super-olfaction, x-ray vision, and flight.
Indeed, in Batman #612, Batman admits that he is out of his league, even after scoring hits with the Kryptonite ring. He claims that if "Clark wanted to, he could use his superspeed and squish me into the cement", and that Superman's big weakness is that "Deep down, Clark's essentially a good person". It's also significant that this punch nearly breaks Batman's hand.