In the 2013 Christmas Special "The Time of the Doctor", the true nature of the First Question was revealed to be a message from the Time Lords, sent with the intention of having the Doctor respond with his name, thereby confirming that the Time Lords had found the correct universe to return to. Most of the pre-established aspects of the Question are explained at this time; it is the "First Question, the oldest question in the universe, hidden in plain sight" because it was being transmitted throughout all of space and time, but encoded.
However, there still seems to be a fairly significant lack of continuity with regards to one aspect of the Question that was mentioned in the Series 6 finale, "The Wedding of River Song". In that episode, Dorium refers to it with all of the aforementioned monikers, but he also says that it is "the Question [the Doctor has] been running from all his life," and earlier in the episode, when Dorium first told him what it was (albeit off-screen), it sent the Doctor into a panic, presumably because he understood the consequences of him saying his name. However, he could not have know that his name would eventually be requested by the Time Lords, because at the time of Series 6, he still believed the Time Lords to be dead, and was genuinely surprised when he learned that they were attempting to contact him through a crack in time on Trenzalore.
So, how could the Doctor have understood the implications of the Question without having any knowledge of the Time Lords' actions in "The Time of the Doctor", and how does that tie in to him having run from the Question "all his life" (despite only having just learned of its existence in that very series)?