There is no canon answer to this question. However, in the spirit of canon, I postulate Voldemort may very well have tried to kill Neville when he was a baby, just as he did with Harry, to ensure he covered all his bases. Voldemort was far too egocentric to outright admit he might have made a mistake in choosing Harry as his nemesis, as the Chosen One from Trelawney's prediction; I think he would have gladly killed Neville as an example of what he might do to those who defied him, Neville being Frank and Alice Longbottom's son. The Longbottoms had been tortured into insanity by Voldemort's Death Eaters. Voldemort himself killing their innocent, baby son would serve to further assert his power in that he would be willing to destroy anything and anybody in order to preserve his control over the wizarding world. So, yes, I believe Voldemort would have killed Neville as an infant, as a show of power.