No, in the Marvel Universe, there is no single, naturally occurring (or Human-engineered) substance capable of deflecting, disrupting or neutralizing magical energies in a fashion similar to the DC Universe's Nth metal.
Magic in the Marvel Universe comes from a variety of sources: personal and personalized ritual magic, tapping into other-dimensional realms and evoking the energies or magic of divine or infernal beings.
Each of these means has completely different effects and can often be countered either with counter-magic, more powerful magic, or by varying levels of magical mastery. The Sorcerer Supreme can counter most other Human practitioner's magic by pure force of will.
Some magics naturally are more effective at countering others but in the Marvel Universe, there has rarely been depicted a single, naturally occurring material capable of disrupting magical effects, just by being there, in a fashion similar to DC's Nth Metal (as depicted primarily in the DC Animated Universe).
There are Marvel metals that are proof against or highly responsive to magic, such as adamantium, Adamantine, Uru or other metals imbued with the Power Cosmic (like the Silver Surfer's surfboard or Terrax's axe.
Having a weapon made from one of these does not guaranteed the disruption of magical effects. However, having the Power Cosmic coursing through a weapon can disrupt magical or even natural environmental effects if the wielder has sufficient skill to do so.
There are individual items which could perform such magic-breaking feats. They were usually magical items themselves.
- The Black Knight (Dane Whitman) did possess a magical sword called the Ebony Blade which was proof against magic, created with magically enhanced, meteorite-derived iron, and was able to disrupt magical fields and break magical spells.
The Ebony Blade deflects most magical attacks. When angled in a certain way, it can instead absorb energy directed at it. It seems mostly immune to magical effects.
It can cut through any substance (except other enchanted weapons or extremely strong metals like adamantium), even piercing Iron Man's Extremis armor with one slash, though how much of a certain substance it can cut through depends on the strength of the wielder. The sword is also indestructible.
Nth Metal or Ninth Metal in the DC Universe
In the canon DC Universe continuities which may or may not included the latest iteration, Nth metal does not neutralize magical capabilities, per se.
- Depending on whose using it, Nth metal has even been depicted as PROMOTING the use of what appears to be magical effects or abilities, including flight, protection from environmental effects, superhuman strength and even energy projection. See: Hector Hall - Silver Scarab
- One version of the material, Valorium is used as the primary element in the 30th Century's Legionnaire's flight ring which permits members of the Legion of Superheroes the power of will-directed flight.
- Although their origin varies between different incarnations of the Legion Of Super-Heroes, the Legion flight rings are usually invented in a joint effort by Brainiac 5 and Invisible Kid. Engraved with the signature "L" of the Legion of Super-Heroes, this ring is also used by students in the Legion Academy when they are in training or on field missions. Legion Flight Rings are composed of a compound known as Valorium, which is derived from the Thanagarian Nth Metal, and possesses similar anti-gravity capabilities. (Adventure Comics #329 (February 1965))
In the DC Animated Universe, Nth Metal has some of the same properties as it does in the comics, with the addition of disrupting magical structures, fields and properties.
It seems to be a material owned or discovered primarily by the Thanagarians who use it as their means of antigravitic flight and protection from the elements.
When housed in weapons such as Hawkgirl Thanagarian mace, it is, in an undisclosed fashion, capable of breaking magical barriers or disrupting magical spells/conditions.