The new Rogue One novelisation indicates that the Tantive IV was in terrible shape even before the Imperials got to it in the Tatooine system. It suffered some sort of explosive impact (presumably a blast from the Devastator) before it managed to escape from Scarif.
The Tantive IV wasn’t ready to fly, let alone fight. It had been the
subject of frantic repairs during the lightspeed voyage from Yavin to
Scarif, secure in the hangar of the Profundity where it had lain,
stubbornly malingering, since its last mission. Even after its host
vessel had arrived in-system and joined the battle against the
Imperial armada, Captain Raymus Antilles and his engineers and droids
had worked desperately to make the corvette spaceworthy—to seal the
leak in its hyperdrive motivator and clean the buildup in its exhaust
ports. Admiral Raddus had made the situation clear: Every ship in the
fleet had a part to play.
The Tantive IV wasn’t ready to fly, but it flew. It emerged from the burning wreck of the cruiser and sped away from Scarif. For a blessed few seconds it moved swiftly, confidently through space. Then the ship rocked again and echoed with thunder and sparks. From his station on the bridge, Raymus could smell circuits melting.
“Star Destroyer closing!” called the officer at the tactical console. Raymus didn’t recognize the face—one of Raddus’s men.
He erased the fear from his own expression. “Get us into hyperspace,” he said. “Make sure you secure the air lock. And prepare the escape pods.”
The Tantive IV might jump out of the system, but it was hurt and it would be pursued. Best not to take chances.
Rogue One: A Star Wars Story - Official Novelisation
According to the
Alan Dean Foster George Lucas novelisation of A New Hope, the ship had its "principal solar sail" destroyed in the first few seconds of tangling with the Devastator in Tatooine orbit (which explains why they didn't attempt to land). Artoo tells C-3P0 that shutting down the main reactor and hyperdrive was necessary, presumably to prevent the ship from exploding, which explains why the ship didn't attempt to outrun the Star Destroyer or enter hyperspace.
“Did you hear that?” he [C3P0] inquired rhetorically of his patient
companion, referring to the throbbing sound. “They’ve shut down the
main reactor and the drive.”
Artoo did not comment immediately. Barrel torso tilted backward,
powerful legs gripping the deck, the meter-high robot was engrossed in
studying the roof overhead. Though he did not have a head to cock in a
listening posture like his friend, Artoo still somehow managed to
convey that impression. A series of short beeps and chirps issued from
his speaker. To even a sensitive human ear they would have been just
so much static, but to Threepio they formed words as clear and pure as
direct current. “Yes, I suppose they did have to shut the drive down,”
Threepio admitted, “but what are we going to do now? We can’t enter
atmosphere with our main stabilizer fin destroyed. I can’t believe
we’re simply going to surrender.”
As a matter of interest, the (now thoroughly non-canon) Star Wars Radio play mentions that her ship was...
"...intercepted on approach and forced to land under escort".
Which obviously departs from the accepted film canon. The landing was in the original draft script but not in the final screenplay.