Tolkien's earlier drafts show a little more golf things that didn't make it into the book, but the passage quoted is the only appearance of golf in any of Tolkien's published works. Later Tolkien considered removing even that.
The earliest surviving manuscript of the passage shows that Tolkien had a different goblin name to pun with (Fingolfin instead of Golfimbul), and that he also included an invention of chess in the same battle.
if you have ever seen a dragon in a pinch you would realize that this was only poetical exaggeration applied to any hobbit, even the Old Took’s great uncle Bullroarer who was so large he could sit on a Shetland pony; and charged the ranks of the goblins of the Mount Gram in the battle of the Green Fields of Fellin and knocked their King Fingolfin’s head clean off with a wooden club. It sailed two hundred yards and went down a rabbit hole, and in this way the battle was won by checkmate and the games of Golf & chess invented simultaneously.
The History of The Hobbit - "The Pryftan Fragment"
In the typescript Tolkien made following this, he goes on to say that Gloin was a big golf fan, and thus knew the story of Bullroarer Took very well.
Tell me what you want me to do, and I will try it, if I have to walk from here to the last desert in the East and fight the Wild Wireworms of the Chinese. I had a great-great-great-uncle, Bullroarer Took, and –’
‘We know, we know’ said Gloin (he was very fond of golf); ‘holed out in
one on the Green Fields! But I assure you the mark was on the door
The History of The Hobbit - "The The Bladorthin Typescript"
In 1960, Tolkien embarked on an (eventually abandoned) attempt to rewrite The Hobbit to be more in the style of The Lord of the Rings. In this version, nearly everything golf-like about the scene was to be removed, such as the beheading, the rabbit-hole, and even the "golf" part of the goblin king's name.
No doubt an exaggeration; but Gandalf was doing his best in a difficult situation. For Bandobras had been the Old Took’s great-granduncle, and usually called Bullroarer. He was so huge (for a hobbit) that he rode a small horse. At the Battle of the Green Fields, when the hobbits were driven back, he charged the ranks of the Goblins of Mount Gram, and smote their king Gulfimbul to the earth with his great wooden club. So the battle was won, and there had been none since in the Shire. Even the dwarves had heard of Bullroarer Took.
The History of The Hobbit - "The 1960 Hobbit"