The Infinity stones in the movie are different than those of the comics. The All-Father/Odin, did not create them. The Collector says the stones were 6 separate singularities formed before the creation of the universe. I don't know what Singularity means in this instance, but in natural science, gravitational singularity refers to a location where the gravitational field is infinite - "a point in spacetime in which gravitational forces cause matter to have an infinite density and zero volume." No idea how helpful that is.
In the comics, the gems correspond to a particular capability. The Power Gem can increases strength and ability of the bearer. Which makes it sound like the Aether but Director James Gunn said on Twitter that the Orb is the supposed to be the equivalent of the comic verse's Power Stone.
The Reality Gem is supposed to have similar effects on a grander scale to the cosmic cube which the Tesseract is likely modeled after - cos it's a cube? So I suppose the Tesserect is supposed to be the Reality gem.
Aether may or may not be comparable to the Soul Gem which can steal the souls of living being. Although there is a Dr. Strange movie coming up and he was the guardian of the soul gem in the comics so the soul gem could be another infinity stone yet to be revealed.
Besides the Power and the Reality gem, there are the Time, Space, Mind and Soul gems - so the Aether and the other three stones may be loosely based off of their capabilities.
You can go here to read more in depth on the topic: http://marvel.wikia.com/Infinity_Gems