Is there any canon information, quotes, or interviews with J.K. Rowling that suggests the Hogwarts houses are (loosely) based on the four temperaments: Choleric, Sanguine, Melancholic, and Phlegmatic?
Not the temperaments, but the four elements. J.K. Rowling mentions this in reference to Slytherin House:
JKR: Probably. I hear you. It is the tradition to have four houses, but in this case, I wanted them to correspond roughly to the four elements. So Gryffindor is fire, Ravenclaw is air, Hufflepuff is earth, and Slytherin is water, hence the fact that their common room is under the lake. So again, it was this idea of harmony and balance, that you had four necessary components and by integrating them you would make a very strong place. But they remain fragmented, as we know.
The Leaky Cauldron and Mugglenet - 2006