Here's what I have observed about Asgardians as per Marvel Cinematic Universe, few comics and the Internet materials:
There is an infantry class which are great warriors and much stronger than humans, but they don't usually have superpowers. They are expendable.
Then, there's a God class which has superpowers. Their deaths are rare and they control the battle, even to the extent of facing entire armies alone or in small teams. e.g. Odin, Thor etc.
The superpowers they have are unique (unlike other races like Frost Giants). For example, Odin has a uniquely advanced magic, while Heimdall's power to see and hear everything in all 9 realms is crucial to his ability to operate the Bifrost Bridge.
How do Asgardians obtain these special superpowers? Are they wholly genetic, or can they be learned? And could an Asgardian from the lower classes be elevated by learning such a superpower? If an Asgardian with an important power (e.g. Heimdall's ability to see across all 9 realms) were to die, how easily could their function be replaced by another Asgardian?