During the course of the Fellowship and the War of the Ring:
- The ring-bearer received potentially mortal injuries twice.
- The ring-bearer was captured twice.
- Rohan was invaded twice. Both times it was rescued by the Ents, who only entered into Gandalf's calculation of forces.
- Pelargir was saved by men who had been dead for 3,000 years. The Dead Men only entered into Aragorn's calculation of forces, and could only serve once.
- Huge swathes of Gondor were conquered. Major fortresses were seized. During the siege of Minas Tirith, the Witch-king achieved a "practicable breach" of the First Circle's gates.
- The Kings of Erebor and the Long Lake were killed.
- The King of Rohan, and his heir, were killed.
- The Steward of Gondor, and his heir, were killed.
- There was no hope of victory by force of arms.
From Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings -- "The Great Years":
June 20, 3018. Sauron attacks Osgiliath. About the same time Thranduil is attacked, and Gollum escapes.
February 25, 3019. First Battle of the Fords of Isen; Théodred son of Théoden slain.
February 26, 3019. Breaking of the Fellowship. Death of Boromir; his horn is heard in Minas Tirith. Meriadoc and Peregrin captured.
[In the Shire calendar, every month has 30 days.]
March 2, 3019. Second Battle of the Fords of Isen; Erkenbrand defeated.
March 10, 3019. Faramir rescued by Gandalf outside the gates of the City.… An army from the Morannon takes Cair Andros and passes into Anórien.
March 11, 3019. Eastern Rohan is invaded from the north. First assault on Lórien.
March 12, 3019. Faramir retreats to the Causeway Forts.
March 13, 3019. Frodo captured by the orcs of Cirith Ungol. The Pelennor is overrun. Faramir is wounded.
March 14, 3019. Minas Tirith is beseiged.
March 15, 3019. In the early hours the Witch-king breaks the Gates of the City. Denethor burns himself on a pyre.… Battle under the trees in Mirkwood; Thranduil repels the forces of Dol Guldur. Second assault on Lórien.
March 17, 3019. Battle of Dale. King Brand and King Dáin Ironfoot fall. Many Dwarves and Men take refuge in Erebor and are besieged.
March 22, 3019. Third assault on Lórien.
March 25, 3019. The Host is surrounded on the Slag-hills.