Could this be "Destination: Void" by Frank Herbert?
In the future, humankind has tried to develop artificial intelligence,
succeeding only once, and then disastrously. A transmission from the
project site on an island in the Puget Sound, "rogue consciousness!",
was followed by slaughter and destruction, culminating in the island
vanishing from the face of the earth.
The current project is being run on the moon, and the book tells the
story of the seventh attempt in a series of experiments to create an
artificial consciousness. For each attempt the scientists raise a
group of clones. These clones are kept isolated and raised to believe
that they will be the crew of a spaceship that will colonize a planet
in the Tau Ceti solar system (Tau Ceti has no habitable planet; its
choice - should they manage to reach it - is part of the planned
frustration of the crew). The spaceship will take hundreds of years to
reach the system and the crew will spend most of their time in
hibernation. Along with the crew of six, the ship carries thousands of
other clones in hibernation, intended to populate the new colony and,
if necessary, provide replacements for any crew members who die along
Per this summary:
The ship’s chaplain, though, is aware that this is really an experiment in high-pressure environments to create brilliance.