There is NO canon evidence for the usage of time turners for anything else but the events in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban.
There is however some canon evidence that there were experiments with time going on for some time.
From Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, part 21 - Hermione's Secret:
"Harry, what do you think you'd do if you saw yourself bursting into
Hagrid's house?" said Hermione.
"I'd -- I'd think I'd gone mad,"
said Harry, "or I'd think there was some Dark Magic going on --"
"Exactly! You wouldn't understand, you might even attack yourself!
Don't you see? Professor McGonagall told me what awful things have
happened when wizards have meddled with time.... Loads of them ended
up killing their past or future selves by mistake!"
The professor McGonagall's statement implies that time travel is not something unknown or state of the art. It is unknown however whether these wizards used time turners or some other tools/magic.
About - were time turners (or any other kind of time-altering magic) used during the first wizarding war. If we apply some logic however:
Rowling's version of time travel seems to be based on two rules:
- No one else should know that you use a time turner even when they see you
- The time turner user MUST NOT change events that his/her past self already lived through or knows about
So actually you cannot change an event to your liking because you don't know what actually happened and you might make things worse.
Some other arguments:
- It looks like Voldemort was winning the war up to the point where he attacked Harry. So for him time turners were not exactly needed
- The Order of the Phoenix most probably had no access to to time turners since they were under ministry control
- Time turners seem a bit inconvenient to use. They are not a tool to jump back in time and then return - they just allow you to "re-live" a certain time period that JUST happened. So the practical usage would be quite limited to the moment of a battle aftermath where a survivor could eventually perform a counter-strike at some other place while you know that the main forces of the enemy are currently engaged in battle with you (remember - you cannot change events that you have seen).
All this implies that actually time altering magic was very unlikely to be used. Actually even when Harry and Hermione use it they DID NOT change the time compared to what happened to THEM. They just did some actions in parallel to themselves and affected other events.
Out of the universe:
Time travel is one of the hardest things to correctly use in fiction books/movies. My personal opinion is that actually Rowling pretty much screwed it up whey she tried to use it as a tool for the plot :)