No. Vader's Tie-Advanced didn't appear in the The Empire Strikes Back but it did make a brief appearance in the film's Junior Novelisation.
During the Battle of Yavin, Sith Lord Darth Vader piloted his own Imperial TIE fighter to defend the Death Star space station against a Rebel Alliance assault. While engaged in a dogfight with an X-wing starfighter, he sensed the enemy pilot was strong with the Force. Vader was about to fire upon the X-wing when he and his two wingmen were attacked by a Corellian YT-1300 transport. Vader survived, but his damaged TIE fighter went spinning out of control. Seconds later, the Death Star was blown into a billion pieces.
After Darth Vader brought his crippled spacecraft to an Imperial outpost, he began his investigation. He did not have to identify the Corellian transport. He’d seen it before, when it had been captured by a Death Star tractor beam and deposited in hangar 3207.
We also see it in the new Marvel comic series Darth Vader #002 (set between the events of A New Hope and Empire Strikes Back) in which we learn that that Vader has been using the Super Star Destroyer 'Annihilator' as his base of operations.
And from a purely Lego point-of-view, Vader's Tie-Advanced makes an appearance in "The Empire Strikes Out" where Vader accidentally prangs Luke's X-Wing...