Yes. (However, we see mentions rather infrequently, and from the source list on Wookiepedia, there may not be any Disney-level canon. I'm not sure if the species mentioned below appear in Disney canon or not)
From the Star Wars wikia page on cats:
A cat was a type of domesticated animal that made vocalizations that sounded like "meow." Ken occasionally wished he possessed a cat or a dog instead of his pet mooka, Zeebo. The spukamas was a common housecat on Corellia. The pittin was another domesticated cat-like creature, as was the felinx. Like cats, they came in many colors and enjoyed batting at strings. Reekcats were another species.
There were also several sentient feline species in the galaxy, such as the the Cantrosians, the Cathar, the Tinnell, and the Togorians. Some cat-like sentient species, such as Orryxians and Catumen, were often nicknamed "Cats."
We see mentions of cats proper only in passing throughout the series, but they do exist. And from the list above, we see the sentient types (others have been referred to as "catlike" in novels, but this may have been a mention of their reflexes rather than their genetics).