Probably so, but with limitations
Although fire is the only thing that can destroy Inferi, they are not immune to physical attack:
“Petrificus Totalus!” Harry bellowed again, backing away as he swiped
his wand through the air; six or seven of them crumpled, but more were
coming toward him. “Impedimenta! Incarcerous!”
A few of them stumbled, one or two of them bound in ropes, but those
climbing onto the rock behind them merely stepped over or on the
fallen bodies. Still slashing at the air with his wand, Harry yelled,
—Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
Note that Harry was able to trip the Inferi with physical force (Impedimenta) and bind them with ropes (Incarcerous). He was also able to paralyze them with the Full-Body Bind, but that's not relevant to this point.
The Patronus seems to be able to exert a physical force. For example, it appears to have tossed a corporeal creature (Lethifold) into the air:
I looked up to see that deathly shadow being thrown into the air upon
the horns of my Patronus. It flew across the room and slithered
swiftly out of sight.
—Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them
In addition, Harry cast a Patronus at Malfoy, Crabbe, and Goyle in Prisoner of Azkaban, which may have knocked them over.
Lying in a crumpled heap on the ground were Malfoy, Crabbe, Goyle,
and Marcus Flint, the Slytherin team Captain, all struggling to remove
themselves from long, black, hooded robes.
—Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
As such, a Patronus could probably physically knock down an Inferius.
However, it would not possess any special power to repel them, as it would with Dementors, not would it be able to kill them (since, as previously mentioned, only fire seems to be able to achieve that).